Hyperplasia of the prostate develops in the vast majority of older men. Know and understand the disease is desirable already in the young years, it will give an opportunity not only to recognize in time, but also to prevent it as much as possible.
What is prostate adenoma?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate adenoma is a common disease among men of mature and advanced age. It is characterized by a number of symptoms associated with impaired urination.
When the disease in the prostate gland connective tissue and epithelium, which leads to its increase. Through the gland passes the upper portion of the urethra, so its growth can block the normal current of urine. As a consequence of developing urinary retention, the bladder and kidneys may eventually become affected.
What is prostate adenoma?
In Russia, the incidence of adenoma in 2009 was one and a half times higher than at the beginning of the century: 2221, 5 per 100,000 adult men (Apolikhin OI et al., 2011). Not all adult men suffer from the same frequency: most often the symptoms appear at the age of 60, and before the age of 30, it does not occur even at the histological level. Benign enlargement of the gland occurs in about 90% of men over the age of 80 years.
- Medical services
- Andrologist consultation
- Treatment of prostate adenoma
- Diagnostic tests
- Ultrasound of the prostate
- Blood test for PSA
- Symptoms of prostate adenoma
- Manifestations of the disease are mainly associated with disorders of urination: the passage of urine is impaired and the ability of the bladder to accumulate and retain it deteriorates. This group of symptoms is called the symptoms of the lower urinary tract. They include:
Symptoms of the phase of accumulation. Characterized by frequent urination, there may appear so–called imperative urges (an irresistible desire to empty the bladder). Also, men have to get up more often at night.
Night urination is a characteristic symptom of prostate adenoma
Symptoms of the emptying phase. The urine stream becomes lethargic, it can be interrupted and splattered. The man has to push to urinate.
Postmictic symptoms. After urination, urine may drip a little, remain a feeling of dissatisfaction with emptying.
At 65 years old, pronounced signs of prostatic adenoma can be found in 30% of men.
It should be noted that these symptoms occur not only in adenoma, but also in a number of other pathologies (nervous disorders of urination, prostatitis, prostate cancer and others).
Prostate adenoma: myths and their exposure
Stages and course of prostate adenoma
In the course of the disease, three stages are distinguished.
I stage can last many years without transition to heavier forms. With it there is an increased frequency of urination, men are disturbed by night urinating in the toilet. The urine stream becomes lethargic, there may be a need to push. In parallel with this, the first signs of urinary incontinence appear.
At the second stage, manifestations become more pronounced. The urine stream is interrupted, residual urine stagnates in the bladder. The need to push can lead to hernia or even prolapse of the rectum. This stage necessarily goes into the next.
Hyperplasia of the prostate
III stage is characterized by stretching the bladder and reducing its ability to contract. Its sensitivity decreases, which can lead to the illusion of alleviating the symptoms. At this stage, complications often develop: infection, kidney damage and stones in the bladder. Urinary incontinence increases, men are often forced to resort to special measures (pads, urine collection).
At the last stage, there are general symptoms associated with “poisoning” in one’s own urine: appetite worsens, weakness, dry mouth, constipation appear.
BPH. Specialist commentary
Complications of prostate adenoma
The disease can last for a long time without affecting the quality of life, most men do not develop complications. However, they are not rare and you need to know about them.
Acute retention of urine. It manifests itself in a sudden impossibility to empty the bladder and pain over the pubis. This condition requires urgent care, a catheter is inserted into the bladder or a small operation is performed.
Urinary tract infections. Cystitis and pyelonephritis develop due to stagnation of urine, which creates favorable conditions for the reproduction of bacteria.
Stones of the bladder are also a consequence of urine stagnation.
Damage to the bladder. If the bladder is not regularly emptied on time, it stretches, protrusions (pockets) in which urine stagnates form in its walls.
Kidney damage. Increased pressure in the bladder and ureters can have a direct damaging effect on the kidneys. This can lead to the development of renal failure.