Explains Boris Osmolovsky, Candidate of Medical Sciences, deputy chief physician for urology at the K + 31 Clinic.
What is adenoma of the prostate?
Adenoma, or hyperplasia, of the prostate gland is an enlargement of the gland in size. Since the puberty period of a man, the prostate gland secretes a secret that is part of the sperm. Cells of the prostate under the influence of the male hormone testosterone are divided, they become larger, and the gland increases in size.
We can say that prostate adenoma is the payment of a man for the qualities that testosterone gives him: physical strength and masculinity. The prostate gland (prostate) is located in the course of the urethra, so when it increases, difficulty urinating. The urine stagnates in the bladder. This causes infection and stone formation.
When and from whom can it appear?
Every man sooner or later will face the problem of enlarging the prostate gland. On average, symptoms of prostatic adenoma appear after 50 years. The risk that a man of this age will have an adenoma of the prostate, is even in the absence of complaints. Early examination and early treatment will help to avoid serious consequences and operations on the prostate gland.
How can I understand that I have prostate adenoma?
The enlargement of the prostate gland disrupts the process of urination. Going to the toilet becomes a real torture: a sluggish stream requires spending more time and putting effort. Even after several minutes of trying it seems that the bladder is full, a new urge appears. If with the difficulty of urination and sluggish stream many men make up, then frequent nocturnal urges (more than 2-3 times per night) interfere with normal life.
What kind of tests should I take in the first place?
The treatment regimens for prostate adenoma vary depending on the volume of the gland, the age of the man and the level of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which in the body is only in the prostate gland. The determination of the level of PSA is used to diagnose prostate cancer, and it is the results of this examination that the doctor will primarily take into account.
In addition, when a man is examined, the urologist must collect information on the volume of the prostate gland. An experienced physician is able to determine the increase in the prostate, probing her finger through the rectum.
The exact volume of the gland and the volume of residual urine is measured by ultrasound. The gland volume is more than 30 cu. cm is considered an increase. The norm of residual urine should not be more than 50 ml.
Before visiting a urologist, a man over 40 must submit a blood test for PSA. If a man does not pass this analysis, the urologist appoints him and explains how to properly prepare for blood donation for PSA. After receiving the result, the man comes to a second consultation. The urologist analyzes the information received and recommends treatment or follow-up.
Why is it important to understand the meaning of PSA?
Prostate-specific antigen is used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The normal level of PSA is up to 4.0 ng / ml, but its increase does not always indicate that a man has prostate cancer. Having data on PSA, ultrasound and the age of a man, the urologist individually evaluates the risk of prostate cancer and decides on further tactics.
There are cases of an increase in PSA with improper preparation for the surrender of blood or inflammation in the prostate gland. In this case, it is necessary to re-sift the analysis after proper preparation and treatment.
Before donating blood to the PSA, you should not be in the sauna for 7 days and take a hot bath, sexual abstinence is recommended for a week, and finger examination of the prostate can not be performed.
Often PSA is monitored in dynamics, that is, a man gives analysis every six months. If there is a PSA gain, the man is additionally examined to exclude prostate cancer.
What will help me now?
Slow prostate enlargement can be medicated. But the pills help only at the initial stage of the disease. At the advanced stage, the drugs work only temporarily or completely ineffectively.
For the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia, the most commonly prescribed drugs are from the group: alpha-adrenoblockers and 5-alpha-reductase blockers.
Alpha-adrenoblockers relax the smooth muscles of the urethra and alleviate the symptoms of adenoma. They do not affect the growth of the prostate gland. Basically, alpha-blockers are used to temporarily improve urination while preparing the patient for surgery.
Slow down the growth of the prostate gland inhibitors 5-alpha-reductase. The intake of these drugs eliminates the stimulating effect of testosterone on the prostate gland. Treatment with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors makes sense in slowing prostate growth in the future.